Curriculum Guides Year 10

Art

Introduction

The Edexcel GCSE Art and Design course aims to stimulate, encourage and develop personal expression, imagination, observational skills, conceptual thinking, an awareness of different environments and cultures and an ability to identify and solve problems in a visual and tactile form. A large variety of media and materials will be used - these will range from painting and drawing, print making, collage, charcoal, experimental mark making and photography. Selected Artists will be studied to develop critical thinking, artistic language and the ability to respond to them in a personal way.
A visit to a museum in Madrid will be an integral part of the course.
Pupils receive four 40 minute lessons per week.

Content

The Edexcel GCSE (9-1) consists of two internally assessed and externally moderated components.
Component 1: Personal Portfolio in Art and Design: 60%.
Students will work within the title FINE ART and will be expected to: develop and explore ideas, research primary and contextual sources, experiment with media, materials, techniques and processes, and present personal responses to the set themes.
Component 2: Externally Set assignment: 40%.
The ESA is released on 1 January each year.
Students will have preparatory time prior to the 10 hour sustained focus period where they will develop and explore ideas, research primary and secondary sources, experiment with media and processes and present a personal response to the externally set theme.

Skills

The skills to be assessed are grouped under the following headings:

  • Knowledge and understanding
  • Interpretative and Creative Purpose
  • Personal Investigation and Development

Homework

There will be a wide variety of homework tasks set each week. Students should be prepared to get ‘out and about’ in Madrid to find relevant sources which will enable them to research their chosen brief.

Assessment

Continual internal assessment, externally moderated.

Resources and Materials

Individual Equipment:
All students need basic drawing and painting equipment for working at home: set of acrylic paints, paint brushes, 2B and 3B pencils, coloured pencils, A3 plastic folder.
A high quality digital camera is today an essential tool for primary research.
The Art Department possesses a well-stocked, continually updated library of books which form an integral part of the course and supplement the internet.


Biology

Introduction

Year 10 is the first full year of the IGCSE Biology course, although two introductory topics were covered at the end of year 9 (characteristics of living things and classification of organisms).
In Year 10 Biology is taught as a separate subject and involves two double lessons (each of 80 minutes) per week. The course follows the Cambridge board IGCSE syllabus and is examined at the end of Year 11 in May. All students follow the extended curriculum.

Content

  • Cells and organisation.
  • Movement across membranes
  • Biological molecules
  • Enzymes and their function
  • Nutrition (plants and animals)
  • Transport (plants and animals)
  • Disease and Infection
  • Respiration and gas exchange
  • Excretion and the kidney

Skills

Students will learn how to use evidence and to draw conclusions and will develop the ability to comment on the reliability and validity of experimental procedures. They will also develop practical skills involved in manipulating a variety of scientific apparatus with care and precision to obtain data and make relevant, careful observations.

Homework

Students will be given one written piece of homework per week (up to forty minutes long) and this will usually be related to material covered in class. It may be in the form of a worksheet to complete, or answering questions from the textbook. One learning homework per week is given to ensure students engage in ongoing revision of ideas.

Assessment

Grades C to A* are available for those students who take the extended paper. All candidates take three Papers. These will be Paper 2 (multiple choice) together with Paper 4 (extended) and Paper 6 (practical). Regular practical sessions prepare students for the alternative to practical exam, which tests observation and recording skills. There will be exams in Yr 10 Biology in December and June.

Resources and Materials

Textbook: Biology for IGCSE. Gareth Williams. 2nd edition Nelson Thornes. 2016.


Chemistry

Introduction

Science is not just a discipline; it is a way of viewing and interpreting the world around us, of gathering and interpreting information, of testing and building knowledge. The broad aim of this department is to provide pupils with the knowledge, skills and experiences to be able to understand and appreciate their environment. Each pupil will be encouraged to view the world through scientific eyes.
More specifically, pupils will develop skills of rational, creative thinking and they will be provided with the necessary opportunities to formulate positive attitudes and opinions in order to be able to make informed, ethical decisions in their lives. They will measure, observe, infer, deduce, predict and conclude. They will hypothesise, test and communicate, whilst functioning as a critically thinking individual integrated in a group of motivated scientists.
The International General Certificate of Education (IGCSE) is an examination set by the University of Cambridge and is of a higher level than the UK based GCSE examination. It is a two year optional course beginning in Year 10.

Content

Please note that the full course specification is available from this department and gives a detailed breakdown of all that follows. For practical purposes it is not included here.
The IGCSE course is actually started during the 3rd term in Year 9 (see Year 9 guide for details). Pupils who join the school in Year 10 will be guided in the process of catching up the work that they have missed.

Term 1:

  • Atoms, elements and compounds
    • Atomic structure and the periodic table
    • Bonding: the structure of matter
  • Stoichiometry
    • Formulae and equations
    • The mole and calculations

Term 2:

  • Electricity and chemistry
  • Chemical changes and energy
  • Chemical Reactions
  • Rate of reaction

Term 3:

  • Reversible reactions
  • Redox
  • Acids and bases

Skills

Practical work.
Students are provided with a practical booklet which they fill in and must keep for the duration of the course. The booklet allows them to accumulate practical knowledge and skills which they will require in the final written practical examination. Throughout the course there is as much emphasis placed upon practical work as possible and students learn a wide range of laboratory techniques. The school community enjoys the use of excellent laboratory facilities with vanguard equipment and comprehensive resources. With safety always a priority, students are encouraged to put their scientific knowledge to the test. They plan, carry out and write up reports on experiments that are closely related to the theory covered in class. Being able to appreciate the practical significance of what they learn is a key factor in promoting real understanding.

Homework

Students can expect two homework tasks per week: a 40 minute written assignment, and a learning assignment. During the course, it is expected that pupils review the work covered in class on a regular basis, and write their own revision notes in preparation for exams.

Assessment

The final external examinations are taken in May or June of Year 11 and consist of the following papers:

  • Paper 1: Multiple Choice (Core)
  • Paper 2: Multiple Choice (Extended)
  • Paper 3: Core theory
  • Paper 4: Extended Theory
  • Paper 6: Alternative to Practical

Pupils will either sit the Core Examinations (Papers 1, 3 and 6) or the Extended Examinations (2, 4 and 6). Grades A* to C are passing grades. Pupils sitting Core exams can achieve a maximum of a C grade, whereas those sitting Extended exams have access to all grades.
Pupils are assessed on a regular basis, usually at the end of each of the sections outlined above. During Year 10, there are two main internal examinations, in December (which covers all of the material from September to December) and June (which covers material from the whole of Year 10).

Resources and Materials

  • Complete Chemistry for IGCSE: Endorsed by University of Cambridge International Examinations (Paperback) by Gallagher and Ingram
  • IGCSE Chemistry (Paperback) by B. Earl
  • IGCSE Study Guide for Chemistry [Paperback] by Bob Berry
  • CIE website: http://www.cambridgestudents.org.uk/

Drama

Introduction

There are four periods devoted to Drama at IGCSE level in both years.

Content

The two periods during school hours will concentrate on group devised and solo repertoire and theory work. Rehearsals will also take place when the scripts have been prepared. Filming will take place for self-assessment and finally if the outcome is successful, for IGCSE assessment.
The two periods after school will concentrate on group repertoire, and in the second and third terms, writing scripts from topics supplied from the examination IGCSE board. These scripts might also be performed. Theory questions on the repertoire extract and the scripts based on the topics will be asked in preparation for the written examination. Discussion in writing and orally on the pre-released repertoire material will also begin in the second term. Students will be given roughly equal parts for fair assessment. Performances before small audiences will take place if the quality is high. Filming of successful pieces must also take place for IGCSE assessment. Filming is usually begun towards the end of the second term.
Students of both Year 10 and 11 will be filmed. In Year 10, the resulting film will be kept as a 'back-up' in case filming of repertoire is not successful in Year 11.
All students should be discussing the development of their part, scene design, stylistic, sound and lighting effects, costume and make-up when not rehearsing. This is also part of the practical assessment. Notice will be taken to ensure that all students take part in discussions. This is part of the overall assessment at IGCSE.

Skills

The students will therefore be covering all the skills mentioned in the seven stages on Page 2 and the basic skills mentioned on Page 3.
All work will be reinforced during the three terms with an IGCSE text book: The text book is little used for formal teaching but students will be expected to be aware of the material covered in the chapters of the text book. The name of the text is: The Complete GCSE Drama Course.
The full IGCSE syllabus is available on the internet and is shown to students.
The stages:

  • Stage 1
    Discussion of dramatic possibilities:
    • Humour
    • Conflict
    • Dynamics
  • Stage 2
    • Improvisations
  • Stage 3
    • Script Writing (group and solo devised) incl: Basic stage directions, set, movements, adverbials and pauses
  • Stage 4
    • Rehearsals
    • Use of basic props and furnitur
  • Stage 5
    Discussion of:
    • Costume
    • Make-up
    • Scenery
    • Lighting
    • Music
    • Other sound effects
    • Visual effects
  • Stage 6
    Production work:
    • Making of costumes
    • Painting
    • Construction of stage area:
    • Use of flats
    • Placement of furniture and props
    • Other structural work
    • Technical for sound and visual effects (incl. film footage /photograph )
    • Positioning of lights
  • Stage 7
    • Performance

THE BASIC SKILLS COVERED WITHIN THE STEPS REFERRED TO ABOVE.
ACTING (In stages 2, 4 and 7):

  • SPEECH:
    • Volume/projection
    • Pace
    • Clarity
    • Intonation
    • Accent and dialect
    • Moments of acting without speech (Incl mime)
  • CHARACTERISATION/INTERACTION
    • Attitude/feeling/emotion (change and development)are shown through speech (see above) and:
      • BASIC STAGE MOVEMENTS
      • FACIAL EXPRESSIONS
      • GESTURE
      • SPATIAL AWARENESS
      • PHYSICALITY
  • STYLISTIC EFFECTS (In stages 2 to 7)
    • Pinteresque
    • Theatre of the absurd
    • Formal/stylised
    • Naturalism v realism
    • Symbolism
    • Total theatre
    • Monologue/soliloquy
    • Chorus
    • Physical drama
    • Documentary drama incl:
    • Dommentary
    • Speeches
    • Song and dance
    • Shoreograph
    • Video and film
    • Alienation effect
    • Stage form:
    • Studio theatre
    • Proscenium arch
    • Thrust
    • Well/round/semi-round
    • Cat-walk

Homework

There are two homeworks a week. Each homework should take 30 minutes. Homework examples: letter; empathetic essay; piece of creative writing; comprehension passage and questions; worksheet from Letts English textbook; book reviews and newspaper articles. Pupils will receive grammar exercises depending on the needs of the group.

Assessment

Students receive grades (A-E) for each piece of work. Staff write targets for the pupils as a standard part of marking. The examination at Christmas assesses the first term’s work. The Summer examination assesses the year’s work as a whole. Any movement from one group to another is usually made at Christmas and at the end of the year.

Resources and Materials

There is a large stock of supplementary material for classes and individual pupils. The library offers the pupils a wide range of reading material. The department also has over 150 DVDs and audio tapes.


English

Introduction

There are five periods of English per week in these two IGCSE years. During these lessons students are prepared for the IGCSE examinations in First Language English and Literature. English is taught for two of the periods: these are language periods. Those who are still experiencing difficulties in English are taught in a smaller group whereby the personal attention of the teacher can instil confidence and help the student overcome individual difficulties. This group does coursework as part of the English language exam to give pupils the best chance possible drafting and improving their work. All 3 groups follow the same IGCSE literature course.

Content

Language.
The aims of the language course are:

  • To enable students to communicate accurately and effectively in speech and writing.
  • To enable students to understand and respond appropriately to what they hear, read and experience
  • To encourage an appreciation and enjoyment of a variety of language.
  • To complement students’ other areas of study and provide them with a wide range of language skills.
  • To promote students’ personal development and their understanding of society and themselves.

Literature
Over the course of the two year course, pupils will study four texts. These will include prose, drama and poetry. The examination is a closed book exam and pupils will therefore have to have a detailed knowledge of all the texts. They will be required to write formal essays, comment closely on the language a writer uses, and write empathetic responses to texts. Full details of texts studied can be found on the Cambridge IGCSE website.

Supplementary English
Supplementary English is offered for pupils who still need further support with the mechanics of the English language. As a part of the course they sit two exams-The English As A Second Language IGCSE and the Advance Certificate Qualification offered by the British Council in November of their Year 11 Both these exams complement the work covered in the main English lessons.

Skills

Language.

  • Reading and Directed Writing.
    Students read a wide variety of texts and are encouraged to analyse structure, presentation of information, writer’s intention etc. An important module takes them through précis skills. There are opportunities to study and write in various forms and styles: letters, reports, speeches, scripts for radio and television, stories, expressive developments of an idea etc.
  • Continuous Writing.
    Students study the demands and techniques of the main prose composition styles: narrative, description, argument, opinion, fantasy, essay etc.
  • Usage.
    Throughout the course students develop control of grammatical structures, an awareness of the reader and the task in hand, a sense of appropriate style, suitable range of vocabulary and competence in punctuation, paragraphing and spelling.
  • Literature.
    The aims of the literature course are:
    • to develop the ability of students to communicate appropriately and effectively.
    • to develop a sensitive critical understanding.
    • to foster a love of literature and an awareness of its social, cultural and artistic value.
    • to explore areas of universal and human concern.
  • Assessment objectives in literature work include:
    • Knowledge with Understanding.
    • Critical Interpretation.
    • Judgement and Personal Response.

Homework

Two pieces of homework are set each week. They are usually written. Language and Literature assignments are each set each week. Students are encouraged not to leave work to the last minute, but to take the time necessary to read, plan and make a rough draft. Marking of homework closely follows the dictates laid down by the Cambridge Board for the marking of IGCSE examinations and coursework, in most cases a grade (A,B,C etc.) and /or grade out of 40.

Assessment

Internal examinations are designed to familiarise students with the format and standards of the final examinations. The Language examination format chosen for the majority of candidates is the conventional one: timed, written papers. The literature examination consists of two written papers. In both papers on prepared texts, candidates are not allowed to take their copies into the examination. The distribution of marks is 25% per answer No distinction is made between core and extended papers, so the full range of grades is available to all candidates.

Resources and Materials

Course books for Language work-Cambridge IGCSE First Language M. Cox.
There is a large stock of supplementary material for classes and individual pupils. The department also has over 150 video and audio tapes as well as DVDs.


French

Introduction

Languages are a key component of education at Runnymede College, with all students studying French up to IGCSE in Year 11 and a large number continuing in the Sixth Form. The study of French provides students with a lifelong skill in communicating in a widely spoken language of continued global importance, and the experience of doing so opens students up to a different culture and gives them the tools necessary to learn other languages in the future.
At Key Stage 4 students broaden their skills to meet the demands of the IGCSE course and there is considerable focus on all four elements of the examination: speaking, listening, reading and writing. Students learn how to express themselves at length and with confidence, and start to come into contact with more authentic French materials.
Pupils are set in Year 10: a slower (4), 2 middle (3 & 2) and a quicker (1) moving set. All sets will still end up covering the extended section of the IGCSE syllabus by the end of Year 11. Some candidates will sit the exam in Year 10. All our students enter for all components at extended level (targeted grades B, A, A*). Pupils are given 4 lessons per week. Conte

Content

Grammar

  • Grammar:
    • Present; future; perfect; imperfect; pluperfect; conditional; conditional perfect; future perfect; present participle; si sentences.
  • Set A:
    • Subjunctive; passive mode
  • Topics:
    • Myself and others; house and home; free time; holidays; food; school and future; weather; health and environment; world issues.

Skills

Equal importance will be given to the skills of:

  • Speaking
  • Listening
  • Reading
  • Writing

Homework

We believe homework is of paramount importance in the learning process as it enables students to work on their own and consolidate their knowledge and to self-assess their progress. Regular testing and assessment takes place at the beginning of the lesson. Homework is given twice a week, including a mixture of exercises and essays.

Assessment

Pupils prepare their folder for IGCSE in sections:

  • Grammar
  • Oral
  • General conversation; role plays; own topic.
  • Writing
  • Essays

Assessments: Regular testing and assessment takes place each lesson. There is a departmental exam in Dcember and a final exam in June.

Resources and Materials


Geography

Introduction

Geography is the study of the physical features of the earth's surface and the variety of human responses to the challenges and opportunities which these present. At IGCSE, students follow the University of Cambridge International Examinations Board syllabus.

Content

The IGCSE is divided into three general themes, which are themselves divided into separate topics. Students cover themes 1 and 2 in year 10. The first theme considers population and settlement studies, the second, the natural environment. The topics that form part of the studies for each theme are shown below:

  • Theme 1: Population and Settlement
    • Topic 1.1: Population Dynamics
    • Topic 1.2: Migration
    • Topic 1.3: Population Structure
    • Topic 1.4: Population Density and Distribution
    • Topic 1.5: Settlements and Service Provision
    • Topic 1.6: Urban Settlements
    • Topic 1.7: Urbanisation
  • Theme 2: The Natural Environment
    • Topic 2.1: Earthquakes and Volcanoes
    • Topic 2.2: Rivers
    • Topic 2.3: Coasts
    • Topic 2.4: Weather
    • Topic 2.5: Climate and Natural Vegetation
  • In addition to the theory work, studies of fieldwork and map skills are frequently integrated into the course.

Skills

The aims of the course are for students to develop:

  • A sense of place and an understanding of relative location on a local, regional and global scale;
  • An awareness of the characteristics and distribution of a selection of contrasting physical and human environments;
  • An understanding of some of the processes affecting the development of such environments;
  • An understanding of the spatial effects of the ways in which people interact with each other and with their environments;
  • An understanding of different communities and cultures throughout the world and an awareness of the contrasting opportunities and constraints presented by different environments.

Homework

Students are set homework once a week.

Assessment

Students are examined externally at the end of the two years via three separate examinations:

  • Paper 1 examines their knowledge and understanding of the course
  • Paper 2 examines the geographical skills they have acquired during the course
  • Paper 4 focuses specifically on their enquiry skills

Throughout the course, students will also be assessed via homework, class work and end of topic tests.

Resources and Materials

  • School Geography website – www.schoolgeography.com
  • Students are provided with a textbook: Kelly, D. and Fretwell, M. (2012) Complete Geography for Cambridge IGCSE.
  • Students are also given revision booklets to complete to support their learning.

History

Introduction

The syllabus for History in Years 10 and 11 is the Cambridge IGCSE, syllabus 0470.
There are three elements to the full IGCSE course:

  • The core content of the syllabus is a study of Twentieth Century International Relations.
  • An in-depth study of America from 1919 to 1941 or Germany from 1918 to 1945 is the second component.
  • Students also study for a paper focused on the understanding and analysis of sources, the topic for which changes on a yearly basis.

Content

  • The Treaty of Versailles and the Versailles Settlement.
  • What were the motives and aims of the Big Three at Versailles?
  • Why did all the victors not get everything that they wanted?
  • What was the immediate impact of the peace treaty on Germany up to 1923?
  • Could the Treaties be justified at the time?
  • The League of Nations
  • How successful was the League in the 1920s?
  • How far did weaknesses in the League's organisation make failure inevitable?
  • How far did the Depression make the work of the League more difficult?
  • How successful was the League in the 1930s?
  • The outbreak is World War Two
  • What were the long term consequences of the peace treaties of 1919 - 1923?
  • What were the consequences of the failure of the League in the 1930s?
  • How far was Hitler's policies to blame for the outbreak of war in the 1939?
  • How important was the Nazi - Soviet pact?
  • Why did Britain and France declare war on Germany in 1939?

Students then do a Depth Study on either the USA or Germany
The USA 1919 - 1941

  • How far did the US economy boom in the 1920s? On what factors was the economic boom based? Why did some industries prosper while others did not? Why did agriculture not share in the prosperity? Did all Americans benefit from the boom?
  • How far did US society change in the 1920s? What were the ‘Roaring 20s’? How widespread was intolerance in US society? Why was prohibition introduced, and then later repealed? How far did the roles of women change during the 1920s?
  • What were the causes and consequences of the Wall Street Crash? How far was speculation responsible for the Wall Street Crash? What impact did the Crash have on the economy? What were the social consequences of the Crash? Why did Roosevelt win the election of 1932?
  • How successful was the New Deal? 
What was the New Deal as introduced in 1933? How far did the character of the New Deal change after 1933? Why did the New Deal encounter opposition? Why did unemployment persist despite the New Deal? Did the fact that the New Deal did not solve unemployment mean that it was a failure?

Germany, 1918-1945
Weimar Republic

  • How did Germany emerge from defeat at the end of the First World War?
  • To what extent did the Republic recover after 1923?
  • What did the Nazi Party stand for in the 1920s?
  • What were the achievements of the Weimar period?

Hitler 1933-34

  • Why was Hitler able to become Chancellor by 1933?
  • Why was Hitler able to dominate Germany by 1934?

The Nazi regime

  • Was Nazi Germany a totalitarian state?
  • How did the Nazis deal with their political opponents?
  • Why did the Nazis persecute many groups in German society?
  • How did the coming of war change life in Nazi Germany?

Skills

Within a framework of providing an enjoyable yet broad and challenging education, we prepare students for the knowledge and skills demanded by Cambridge for this syllabus.
These focus on:

  • Acquiring knowledge and understanding of the past
  • Investigating historical events, peoples and issues
  • Understanding cause and consequence, continuity and change, similarity and difference
  • Develop an understanding of how the past has been reported and interpreted
  • Using historical sources critically and in their context, understanding the nature and use of historical evidence
  • Drawing conclusions and appreciating that these and other historical conclusions are liable to reassessment in the light if new evidence or reinterpretation of evidence.

Homework

Homework is set weekly and consists of about one hour of work.
Supplementary reading and research will be required

Assessment

Regular short tests, evidence exercises and essays will be required.
The final exam is made up of 3 separate exam papers, each taken on a different day. Pupils will be we'll prepared for each paper and the types of questions they use.

Resources and Materials

  • Core Text:
    • IGCSE Modern World History, Ben Walsh. John Murray.
  • In Depth USA Texts:
    • The Age of Excess, America 1920 - 1932, Josh Brooman. Longman.
    • A New Deal, America 1932 - 1945, Josh Brooman. Longman.
  • In Depth Germany Text:
    • Germany 1918-45 - Cloake
  • Moodle and Department website

Latin

Introduction

Pupils are being prepared for the IGCSE examination in Latin. The examination is taken at the end of Year 11. The examination consists of two papers, which all pupils sit.
The aims of the Cambridge IGCSE Latin syllabus are to enable candidates to develop:

  • An understanding of the Latin language
  • The ability to read, understand, appreciate and respond to some Latin literature
  • An understanding of some of the elements of Roman civilisation
  • An analytical approach to language by seeing English in relation to a language of very different structure

And by observing the influence of Latin on English:

  • An awareness of the motives and attitudes of people of a different time and culture, while considering
  • The legacy of Rome to the modern world
  • A greater understanding of a range of aesthetic, ethical, linguistic, political, religious and social issues
  • An excellent foundation for advanced study

It is also hoped in Runnymede that pupils' studies will increase their knowledge and understanding of their cultural heritage and of the world around them in Spain; that they will learn more of the language from which Spanish has evolved and English has borrowed enormously; and that they can analyse and develop the way they themselves use language and so use it more effectively

Content

The syllabus in Year 10 is determined to a large extent by the examination which pupils will sit in Year 11. (It is assumed that pupils have studied Latin before, typically for two or three years. The course is not suitable for complete beginners.)
Paper 1 consists of unprepared translation and comprehension, Paper 2 has questions on verse and prose texts prepared in advance.
Pupils therefore need to complete their learning of the language necessary for the GCSE, and to become more accustomed to the translation of unprepared stories and to meet for the first time Roman literature. (Roman life is not directly relevant to the syllabus, but it plays a major role in the course books and is regarded as important in its own right.)
A short section of the IGCSE texts will be read and studied just before the end of the year.
The main language topics to be covered in Year 10 are:

  • VERBS:
    • Revision of Active Indicative
    • Future Tense (at start of year)
    • Passive Indicatives
    • Future Perfect
    • Participles/Infinitives (some have already been introduced)
    • Subjunctives, Active and Passive
  • NOUNS
    • Revision of three main declensions.
    • Fourth and fifth Declensions
  • ADJECTIVES
  • PRONOUNS
    • is, ille, hic, qui, ego, tu, nos ,vos, se
  • CONSTRUCTIONS
    • Revision of three uses of the Subjunctive covered in Year 9
    • Indirect Commands
    • Result Clauses
    • Fear
    • Revision of Participles
    • Ablative Absolute
    • Indirect Statement
    • Gerundives of Obligation
    • ad + the Gerundive
    • Other uses of the Gerundive and of the Gerund
    • Subjunctive Conditional Clauses

Several Roman life topics are studied as we go through the Cambridge Latin Course. The topics which might be included are:
Autumn:
The city of Rome and building techniques, patronage, social organisation, alternatives to Roman religion
Spring:
Early Christianity, chariot-racing and other entertainments, houses in the country, freedmen, politics, women and marriage, Tacitus’ account of Agricola’s career (in English)

Skills

Pupils should be learning to:

  • Understand original Latin texts by translating and by answering comprehension questions through knowledge of the vocabulary, endings and syntax of Latin, and understanding of the different ways that Latin and English (and Spanish) work as languages.
  • Understand and respond to prepared texts, with translation, questions on context, and on literary and other values.
  • Understand and evaluate different types of evidence for the Roman world and notice how it has affected the modern world.

Homework

Homework is set twice a week. Many involve learning of grammar or vocabulary; translation is often set, commonly of a passage done or partly done already in class; photocopied questions on Roman life are set after a topic has been read. Normally written homework is not expected for the following day.

Assessment

There is no formal assessment except in marking of homework and setting examinations twice a year. Continuous informal assessment is made easier by the generally small size of groups.

Resources and Materials

The books already mentioned and photocopies, in some cases bound to make booklets are the principal resources. Various works in translation (e.g. Tacitus, Pliny, Josephus, Suetonius) are available to illustrate topics of Roman life . Slides - part of the Cambridge Latin Course - and the teacher’s own slides and photographs are available too.
"SALVE", the Runnymede Classics website, has extra information on Roman life topics studied, photographs, exercises to practise grammar and vocabulary, and help with exam revision. It can be accessed by going to http://salve.runnymede-college.com. It contains links to other sites, in particular the Cambridge Latin Course website and the BBC “Romans” site.


Mathematics

Introduction

In Year 10 a large proportion of the IGCSE content is taught, and students start to prepare themselves for the examination requirements in Year 11. The Cambridge IGCSE course is designed for all pupils to gain:

  • The development of their mathematical knowledge
  • Confidence, by developing a feel for numbers, patterns and relationships
  • An ability to consider and solve problems and present and interpret results
  • Akills in communication and reasoning using mathematical concepts
  • A solid foundation for further study.

Our aim is to give all pupils the opportunity to develop their potential to the full, and to achieve this students will be placed into sets based on the wealth of information gained from their formative and summative assessments from Year 7 - 9, and the advice of their class teachers. All students will then be taught the same content using the same resources prepared by the Year 10 teaching team, the only difference being the pace of the classes appropriate to the students’ requirements. The exception to this is the pupils we feel would benefit from working towards the Core level IGCSE exam in Year 10 to help students to gain confidence and secure a grade C before the pressure of Year 11. Those students will receive intensive instruction in Year 10 to prepare for the Core exam in May, and then will start to work towards the Extended level examinations which they will take alongside the other classes in Year 11.
We put a high emphasis on effort, involvement and risk-taking. Mistakes are embraced and encouraged as part of the learning process, and we strive to cultivate a safe and engaging environment for all students to reach their potential. The Mathematics team has carefully planned differentiated resources to ensure that every child has the same opportunities to make progress, and that appropriate support and challenge is available in every lesson.

Content

In Year 10 students continue to work on developing mathematical skills in all four of the key areas; Number, Shape, Algebra and Data Handling. More challenging IGCSE topics are introduced, and students start to focus on the format of examination questions and the skills required to succeed at this level. The full topic schedule for this year (for both Extended and Core groups) can be found on the department website, under IGCSE, Year 10:
EXTENDED: https://runnymedemathematics.weebly.com/uploads/4/0/6/7/40678035/students_year_10_sow_2019-20.pdf
CORE: https://runnymedemathematics.weebly.com/uploads/4/0/6/7/40678035/students_year_10_core_sow_2019-20.pdf

Skills

Students are examined on AO1 and AO2 skills in the Mathematics IGCSE. AO1 marks are rewarded for demonstrating knowledge of mathematical techniques and skills required for this that we work on in Year 10 include estimation, calculation, use of a calculator, and using mathematical instruments. AO2 marks are rewarded for applying mathematical techniques to solve problems and the skills we focus on here are working logically, recognising patterns, and analysis of information.
A full breakdown of all the skills taught within the IGCSE syllabus can be found in the IGCSE information pack on the department website: https://runnymedemathematics.weebly.com/uploads/4/0/6/7/40678035/324830-learner-guide-for-cambridge-igcse-mathematics-0580-.pdf

Homework

Homework is set on a weekly basis and will either be related to the content covered in class during that week or it will be a review task to give pupils the opportunity consolidate their understanding of a previously taught topic and enhance their memory of it. It will often be set from the Practice Book or the class textbook (which students can use their iPad to take photos of), but sometimes may be a worksheet or a pack of exam style questions.
Students will always be given optional extra challenge tasks so that they are able to challenge themselves appropriately. We have high expectations of effort and students will be graded on this for every piece of homework that is marked by the teacher. If a student finds they are unable to attempt a question they should either email their teacher directly for help, or see them outside of lessons before the homework deadline.

Assessment

Students at Runnymede receive five, forty minute, periods a week for mathematics. Formative assessment is ongoing within the classroom every lesson, and is also informed by attainment on homework tasks.
Students will be formally tested in class approximately once per half term. Test timings are outlined in the schedule link above. All assessments will test material cumulatively to help students to build their knowledge and memory of the content in line with findings from recent educational research.

Resources and Materials

Students will be given a copy of the appropriate Practice Book (Core or Extended) to support their studies at home. This can be used for homework and revision purposes and should be returned at the end of the IGCSE course.
In lessons students will have access to the full IGCSE textbook published by Cambridge University Press specifically for the Cambridge IGCSE syllabus.
Revision materials, videos and links for all topics are available on the department website under IGCSE, Year 10.
In lessons, resources include use of the course textbook and a wealth of activities and tasks created by the Mathematics team. Extra challenge tasks are always available and can be collected by the pupils to use for enrichment or revision purposes.


Music

Introduction

GCSE Music, Edexcel.
This qualification supports students in forming personal and meaningful relationships with music through the development of musical knowledge, understanding and skills including performing, composing and appraising. The qualification encourages students to engage critically and creatively with a wide range of music and musical contexts, develop an understanding of the place of music in different cultures and contexts, and reflect on how music is used in the expression of personal and collective identities.

Content

  • Performance
    • Students will have to perform one solo and one ensemble performance.
  • Composition
    • The purpose of this component is to assess students’ skills in composing music and enables them to appreciate the process of creating music. Students will be introduced to the technical and creative skills required by a composer. Two compositions are submitted, one free composition and one to a brief set by the examining board.
  • Appraising
    • The purpose of this component is to assess students’ listening and appraising skills through the study of music across a variety of styles and genres. The content is grouped into four areas of study, each of which contains two set works. The Areas of Study are: Instrumental Music 1700-1820, Vocal Music, Music for Stage and Screen, Fusions.
    • There are two set works in each area of study, and these will allow students to develop their knowledge and understanding of musical elements, musical contexts and musical language through the context of these pieces. Students should also study a range of pieces beyond these set works.

Skills

  • To Develop performing skills individually and in groups to communicate musically with fluency and control of the resources used
  • To Develop composing skills to organise musical ideas and make use of appropriate resources
  • To recognise contrasting genres, styles and traditions of music, and develop some awareness of musical chronology

Homework

Students should always be working on their performance pieces. Composition and Appraising tasks are be set weekly.

Assessment

Two performances and Two Compositions, externally moderated.
Appraising Exam, May final year of course

Resources and Materials

As well as students own musical instrument access to track recording equipment is highly desirable. Equipment to convert the iPad into a recording studio would be ideal.


Physical Education

Introduction

Physical education is an important part of education at Runnymede College. The objectives of PE include the development of one's motor and social abilities, the promotion of the importance of physical fitness and the encouragement of budding talent in sports.
PE also aims to provide a daily time for some physical activity for the students. The physical training class, as it is also called, involves sports, games, exercise and most importantly, a break from the sedentary learning indoors.
One of the other important objectives of physical education is to instil in students the values and skills of maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Daily physical activity promotes an awareness of health and well-being among students. It boosts them to engage in physical activities on a daily basis. It promotes them to lead a healthy life in adulthood. The sports, which are a part of a physical education class, also help in developing motor skills in children.

Content

Pupils are given 2 lessons per week in a double class.

  • Term 1:
    • Unit 1: Fitness
    • Unit 2: Swimming
    • Unit 3: Hockey
    • Unit 4: Volleyball
  • Term 2:
    • Unit 5: Athletics
  • Term 3:
    • Unit 6: Badminton
    • Unit 7: Kickball / Cricket
    • Unit 8: First Aid

Skills

Equal importance will be given to the skills with different activities and exercises.
Sport- Specific Techniques.

  • Physical Perform Skills:
    • Strength, Stamina, Flexibility and Speed
    • Coordination
    • Balance
    • Agility
  • Mental Capacities:
    • Motivation and tension in performance
    • Determination to face up to challenges
    • Mental alertness
    • Active lifestyles and healthy
    • Confidence

Homework

There is no homework except If a pupil is unable to do PE classes in a particular unit (because they have a medical problem: allergy to something or injury). In this case they will be asked to do homework about this unit.

Assessment

Assessment in PE, is concerned primarily with the observation and recording of achievement in the practical context. It should be a continuous activity, blended in as part of normal teaching. The main method of gaining evidence of achievement is by direct observation of:

  • The physical skill of ability of the pupil (during each class).
  • The way in which the pupil has selected and organised their response (during each class with the effort and involvement).
  • The recognition and appreciation by the pupil of performance of themselves and others (at the end of each class and unit, with different events or tests).

Resources and Materials

Equipment: pupils should bring their PE-kit (shorts, T-shirt and trainers) and for swimming they should bring their PE-kit and their swimming things (swim cup, swimming suit, flip-flops and towel).


Science

Introduction

In Year 9 we teach Physics, Chemistry and Biology as separate subjects. Each class has one double period of each per week during which pupils do a considerable amount of practical work, backed up by the appropriate theory. All classes take place in a laboratory. The courses of study in all 3 subjects follow Key Stage 3 of the National Curriculum but augment this with additional material to provide suitable challenges for more able pupils and to prepare them for the next level: IGCSE.
We also start iGCSEs for Biology and Chemistry in term 3. The introductory units also help pupils make their option choices for the next year.

Content

During Key Stage 3, students will have the opportunity to begin to understand how scientists think about and describe the world we live in. They will appreciate the importance of scientific ideas to explain what happens around them, and they will encounter applications of Science.
Chemistry topics include: properties of metals; reactions of metals with water and acids; reactions of acids with metal oxides and carbonates and with alkalis; the reactivity series; corrosion; extraction of metals from their ores; environmental chemistry. Throughout these topics, pupils learn how to use chemical formulae and balanced chemical equations. The introductory topics for iGCSE are states of matter, separation techniques and atomic structure.
Physics topics include: forces and movement; measuring velocity; acceleration and the factors affecting it; air resistance and terminal speed; forces on objects in equilibrium; the principle of moments.
In the first term in Biology we look at Inheritance and simple genetic crosses in humans are studied. Environmental influences on variation, selective breeding and animal welfare issues are also considered.
In the second term we continue the study of body systems by looking at movement in humans, including antagonistic muscles, different types of joints and skeletal structure. The nervous system is touched on with emphasis on important sense organs, namely the eye, ear and skin. Plants, leaf structure and photosynthesis are studied in the latter part of term two and provide an introduction to the ecology topic. In the third term the GCSE topics of characteristics of living things and classification of organisms are taught.

Skills

Skills will be developed in the areas of:

  • Accurate observation.
  • Planning and carrying out qualitative and quantitative investigations.
  • Formulation and testing of hypotheses.
  • Presentation and analysis of results
  • Discussion of results and listening to the views of others
  • Use of a wide range of sources of information
  • Communication of knowledge.

Homework

Homework is set each week and is usually of a written nature. It may include work from the textbook, extensions of the practical work done in class, or preparation for work in the following week. Homework should normally take approximately 30 minutes. From time to time, weekly or additional learning homework will also be set.

Assessment

Assessment includes homework tasks, practical write-ups and end of unit tests as well as end of term exams in December and June of the academic year. There is no formal practical exam at KS3 but a student's ability to follow methodology, to work safely and with precision, is assessed by the teacher during all practical lessons.

Resources and Materials

The course follows the Exploring Science for Year 9 "working scientifically" which has it’s own text book covering year 9 biology chemistry and physics. The scheme also suggests and provides support materials for practical work which is appropriate to all the topics covered.
Students also carry out experiments where relevant and this builds on their practical skills from years 7 and 8 and hopefully captures their interest by bringing the subject to life.


Physics

Introduction

Students study the CIE IGCSE physics course. There are two double (80 minute) lessons each week. Whenever possible, the teaching is based on experimental work. Practical work serves as a stimulus to students and is an important experience for them when they do their final examinations. Theory lessons complement and extend the practical work that is done. Mathematical work is an important part of the physics course.

Content

The topics studied in Year 10 are: properties of waves, including light and sound; measurement of and relations between distance, time, velocity and acceleration; mass, weight and density; the effects of forces; moments, stability and equilibrium; scalars and vectors; energy, work and power; kinetic theory of matter; thermal properties of materials; methods of heat transfer.

Skills

  • Knowledge with understanding Candidates should be able to demonstrate knowledge and understanding of:
    • Scientific phenomena, facts, laws, definitions, concepts, theories
    • Scientific vocabulary, terminology, conventions (including symbols, quantities and units)
    • Scientific instruments and apparatus, including techniques of operation and aspects of safety
    • Scientific quantities and their determination
    • Scientific and technological applications with their social, economic and environmental implications.
  • Handling information and problem solving. Candidates should be able to:
    • Locate, select, organise and present information from a variety of sources
    • Translate information from one form to another
    • Manipulate numerical and other data
    • Use information to identify patterns, report trends and draw inferences
    • Present reasoned explanations of phenomena, patterns and relationships
    • Make predictions and hypotheses
    • Solve problems, including some of a quantitative nature.
  • Experimental skills and investigations. Candidates should be able to:
    • Know how to use techniques, apparatus, and materials (including following a sequence of instructions, where appropriate)
    • Make and record observations and measurements
    • Interpret and evaluate experimental observations and data
    • Plan investigations, evaluate methods and suggest possible improvements (including the selection of techniques, apparatus and materials).

Homework

Students will normally be given one written homework a week. This may be text book based, research, completion and extension of practical work or mathematical work. In addition there will be learning homework in which students will be expected to review their recent work or prepare for tests or examinations.

Assessment

Usually, all students are entered for the extended level examinations. Students take three examination papers. Paper 2 is the extended level multiple choice paper; Paper 4 papers contain longer, structured questions that require written and/or numerical responses. All candidates also take Paper 6 which is a written paper which examines candidates abilities in and understanding of practical work.

Resources and Materials

The main text book is Complete Physics for Cambridge IGCSE by Stephen Pople. Students would find it useful to acquire the companion revision guide: “Physics for Cambridge IGCSE Revision Guide” published b y Oxford University Press.
Workbooks which work alongside the student book are available as well.


Sociales

Introduction

En este curso se desarrollan los contenidos de Geografía para el segundo ciclo de la ESO y se siguen las pautas prescritas por el currículo oficial.
El enfoque pedagógico asumido facilita el aprendizaje significativo y responde a las características básicas de la concepción constructivista del aprendizaje, por lo que se contemplan los conocimientos previos del alumno y sus capacidades; la presentación de los contenidos siguiendo la lógica de la asignatura y del currículo británico y con una secuencia significativa y la aproximación al método científico con un enfoque instrumental.

Content

  • La organización política y territorial de España. La Comunidad de Madrid:
    • La población y el poblamiento en España. La población en la Comunidad de Madrid.
    • Las actividades económicas de España. La economía en la Comunidad de Madrid.

Skills

Queremos despertar en los alumnos la pasión por aprender y dotarles de las mejores herramientas para que puedan lograr su realización personal, ejerzan la ciudadanía activa, se incorporen a la vida adulta de manera satisfactoria y sean capaces de desarrollar un aprendizaje permanente a lo largo de la vida. Por todo ello, damos un tratamiento especial a competencias básicas que integren los diferentes aprendizajes y a que los estudiantes desarrollen sus habilidades lectoras, utilicen las nuevas tecnologías de la comunicación e información, aprendan técnicas de estudio, mejoren la atención y desarrollen un razonamiento lógico que les ayude a interpretar y comprender el entorno y a encontrar diferentes soluciones para resolver problemas, sin olvidar la educación en valores.

Homework

Dos períodos a la semana…
Una vez a la semana. Consistirán fundamentalmente en aplicaciones de lo ya estudiado en clase, ejercicios prácticos, búsqueda de material e información, mapas, preparación de debates y exposiciones orales, elaboración de esquemas y diagramas...

Assessment

Participación en clase, ejercicios escritos, debates, exposición oral de trabajos, trabajos colaborativos en equipo, pruebas escritas de evaluación ( tres evaluaciones) y juegos interactivos.

Resources and Materials

  • Libro-cuaderno elaborado por el departamento.
  • Atlas geográfico.
  • Material visual diverso (pizarra interactiva), juegos interactivos.
  • Enciclopedias digitales y diccionarios.
  • Herramientas y aplicaciones digitales. iPads y ordenadores portátiles.
  • Presentaciones digitales elaboradas por el departamento.

Spanish

Introduction

This course id designed for advanced learners.
The Year 10 Spanish students have sat the IGCSE exam in Year 9 and in Year 10 prepare for the level B2 of the DELE qualification organised by the Instituto Cervantes.

  • The Diploma in Spanish (DELE) level B2 accredits language users’ capacity to:
    • Understand the gist of complex texts about concrete or abstract themes, even technical texts, provided that they are within the candidates’ field of specialization.
    • Interact with native speakers with sufficient fluency and spontaneity, so that communication does not constitute an effort for the interlocutors.
    • Produce clear and detailed texts about diverse topics, as well as defend a point of view on general topics, stating the pros and cons of the different options.
  • The level B2 examination has four parts:
    • Group 1
      • Reading comprehension test (70 min)
      • Written expression and interaction test (80 min)
    • Group 2
      • Listening comprehension test (40 min)
      • Oral expression and interaction test (20 min + 20 min to prepare)

Content

Based on textbook ELE ACTUAL B2 Editorial SM.

  • Term 1
    • Unit 1: Aprender español
    • Unit 2: El tiempo libre
    • Unit 3: Condiciones de vida
    • Unit 4: Un mundo mejor
    • Unit 5: Sentimientos
    • Keeping up-to-date with the news
    • Reading in class
  • Term 2
    • Unit 6: Ecología
    • Unit 7: La publicidad
    • Unit 8: Los medios de comunicación
    • Unit 9: Carácter y sentimientos
    • Keeping up-to-date with the news
    • Reading in class
    • Practice papers
  • Term 3
    • Unit 10: Estados físicos y anímicos
    • Unit 11: De vacaciones
    • Unit 12: Hechos y decisiones importantes
    • Keeping up-to-date with the news
    • Reading in class
    • Practice papers
  • Literature:
    We dedicate one period per week to directed reading in class. These are the titles to be read:
    • Term 1: La memoria de los seres perdidos, Jordi Sierra i Fabra
    • Term 2: Campos de Fresas, Jordi Sierra i Fabra
    • Term 3: En la ardiente oscuridad, Antonio Buero Vallejo

Skills

  • LISTENING: Show a clear understanding of the spoken language including regional varieties and different registers and demonstrate an ability to infer meaning.
  • READING: Show a clear understanding of a range of written texts, including newspaper articles and literary texts and demonstrate an ability to infer meaning.
  • SPEAKING: Develop ideas and express and justify points of view effectively, respond readily and fluently and take the initiative, be able to deal appropriately with unpredictable elements.
  • WRITING: Show the ability to organise and structure a range of texts coherently, offer relevant information which addresses the requirements of the task, make effective use of a wide range of vocabulary and a variety of complex structures, use grammar, morphology and syntax in an accurate way.

Homework

  • One sixty-minute homework is given to pupils once a week.
  • Learning vocabulary and verb tenses.
  • Reading comprehension texts.
  • Writing argumentative, narrative, descriptive and creative essays.
  • Reading literature.
  • Working through activities from the textbook.
  • Working through past papers.
  • Preparing oral presentations.
  • Researching for information.
  • Watching the news and series.
  • Reading newspapers and magazines in Spanish.
  • Practising their language skills outside school.

Assessment

Continuous assessment is carried out, both of classwork and homework, in both oral and written forms. Preference is given to frequent assessment and testing rather than the weight being laid on one large exam. However, there are two official exam sessions: December and June. Moreover, students will sit the DELE B2 exam in June.

Resources and Materials

  • ELE ACTUAL B2 Editorial SM
  • La memoria de los seres perdidos, Jordi Sierra i Fabra
  • Campos de Fresas, Jordi Sierra i Fabra
  • En la ardiente oscuridad, Antonio Buero Vallejo
  • Acción Gramática, Hodder Education,
  • Gramática básica del estudiante de español, varios autores, Editorial Difusión
  • Practice Makes Perfect, Complete Spanish Grammar, McGraw Hill, 2004
  • Practice Makes Perfect, Spanish Verb Tenses, Devney Richmond

Spanish - Lengua

Introduction

Este curso se corresponde con 3º de la ESO dentro del sistema español de la Enseñanza Obligatoria en el marco de la LOE. Nuestro programa de estudios desarrolla los contenidos que el Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia y la Comunidad de Madrid han prescrito para los currículos de la Educación Secundaria Obligatoria.
La principal finalidad de esta materia es aportar un nivel lingüístico más elevado a los alumnos españoles que se educan en el sistema británico, así como introducirles al mundo de la literatura y cultura españolas, enseñarles a valorar el español como cuarto idioma más hablado del mundo y darles la oportunidad de ser verdaderamente bilingües.
Además de alcanzar los objetivos correspondientes a la formación obligatoria básica de la ESO, se estudia la literatura española, no desde un punto de vista meramente teórico sino a través de la lectura directa y completa de las distintas obras, dirigida por las profesoras, identificando su trasfondo histórico y cultural, apoyado en trabajos individuales, de grupo, material audiovisual y digital... Para ello, se eligen libros de lectura apropiados a la edad, procurando que sean temas motivadores y que fomenten en los alumnos el placer de leer.
Este curso tiene unas características especiales que lo diferencian de los demás, debido a que, además de la parte correspondiente al sistema educativo español, empezamos a preparar el IGCSE de Español como Primera Lengua, perteneciente al currículo educativo inglés y que está basado fundamentalmente en destrezas de comprensión lectora y expresión escrita. El objetivo principal es dotar a los alumnos de la mejor preparación posible para enfrentarse al examen oficial, para lo que se trabajan los contenidos y las destrezas necesarias para superar el examen con éxito, a partir de exámenes de convocatorias anteriores.

Content

  • Conocimiento de la lengua: técnicas de redacción y ortografía .
  • Preparación de la Escritura Dirigida y Creativa del IGSCE de Español como primera lengua.
  • Literatura y lectura: Se estudiarán algunos aspectos teóricos de la literatura y de la historia de la literatura española (desde la Edad Media hasta el Barroco). En la sección de lectura se hará una lectura completa, guiada y comentada en clase de los siguientes textos:
    • El cantar del Mío Cid, (narrativa), primer trimestre.
    • Relatos cortos, autores españoles e hispanoamericanos (narrativa), segundo trimestre: Mi hermano cruza la plaza, Las ausencias, A través de las ondas, Favores nocturnos y Kamikaces.
    • En la ardiente oscuridad, Antonio Buero Vallejo (teatro), tercer trimestre.
  • y en casa:
    • La memoria de los seres perdidos, Jordi Serra i Fabra(narrativa), primer trimestre y un libro de libre elección, orientados por las profesoras.
    • Cielo abajo, Javier Marías (narrativa), segundo trimestre.
    • Crónica de una muerte anunciada, Gabriel García Márquez (narrativa), tercer trimestre.

Skills

Los alumnos adquirirán todos los elementos de la competencia comunicativa tanto a nivel oral como escrito y conocimientos del lenguaje que les permitirá relacionarse con el mundo que les rodea, todo lo cual contribuirá al desarrollo de su autoestima y de otras competencias ligadas con otras materias y actitudes.

Homework

Una vez a la semana. Consistirán fundamentalmente en aplicaciones de lo ya estudiado en clase, ejercicios prácticos, búsqueda de material e información, preparación de debates y exposiciones orales, lectura. A partir del segundo trimestre, los deberes consistirán principalmente en la redacción de un texto perteneciente a una de las partes de exámenes pasados de IGCSE.

Assessment

Participación en clase, ejercicios escritos, debates, exposición de trabajos, pruebas escritas de evaluación (tres evaluaciones).

Resources and Materials

  • Libro de texto: Lengua y Literatura española 3 (Ed. Casals)
  • Enciclopedias y diccionarios.
  • Material fotocopiado.
  • iPad: diccionario, recursos digitales, investigación.
  • Pizarra digital.